Emissions and Waste¶
Purpose and Perspective¶
The Emissions and Waste sector calculates fossil fuel emissions for CO2, N2O, SOx and CH4, as well as fossil fuel greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalent. The calculation of emissions is based on fossil fuel consumption and physical conversion factors. It also calculates non-energy emissions from agriculture activities (based on the level of activity), from the production of cement (based on population size and income level), and from land use changes (based on deforestation and reforestation). In addition, this sector calculates the generation and management of solid waste. We consider waste generation at both the urban and rural level, and costs of collection and disposal.
Model Structure and Major Assumptions¶
PM2.5 emission parameters for biomass are based on Nussbaumer et al. 2008 
CO2, N2O and CH4 are the major contributors to total emission of greenhouse gases 
Waste collection and disposable unit cost are estimated based on World Bank (2012) 
Exogenous Input Variables¶
Initial per capita waste generation - Units: Kg/(Person*Day)
In order to calculate future emissions in CO2 equivalent we use constant conversion factors. In reality, such factors can change based on the properties of the fuels being used. Should such information about future fuels quality be available, the model can flexibly accept time-varying conversion parameters.
Footnotes and References¶
 Klimont, Z., Cofala, J., Bertok, I., Amann, M., Heyes, C., & Gyarfas, F. (2002). Modelling Particulate Emissions in Europe; A Framework to Estimate Reduction Potential and Control Costs. IIASA Interim Report, IR-02-076.
 Nussbaumer, T., Czasch, C., Klippel, N., Johansson, L., & Tullin, C. (2008). Particulate Emissions from Biomass Combustion in IEA Countries, Survey on Measurements and Emission Factors. IEA Bioenergy Task 32.
 IPCC (2006). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston, H.S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T., & Tanabe, K. (Eds). Japan: IGES.
 World Bank (2012). What a waste: a global review of solid waste management, urban development series. Washington, DC: World Bank.
 IPCC (2000). Watson, R.T., Noble, I.R., Bolin, B., Ravindranath, N.H., Verardo, D.J., & Dokken, D.J. (Eds.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.