Education Sector

Purpose and Perspective

The Education sector tracks the level and distribution of education in the adult population disaggregated across age groups and gender. The sector outputs include adult literacy, average years of schooling by gender, proportion of population age 25 to 29 that has completed tertiary school, proportion of population aged 20 to 24 that has completed secondary school, and other variables that serve as indicators for the SDGs and that impact other sectors of the model.

The education level by adult age group is represented with an aging structure [1], so changes in net enrollment rate and dropout are only reflected in the young adult population groups, and will take consistency and time to see the effects on the adult literacy rate and average years of schooling, as they both consider the entire adult population.

The model disaggregates between pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education, including the budget allocations, net and gross enrollment rates by gender, and simulated capacity.

Sector Structure and Major Assumptions

Exogenous Input Variables


Initialization Variables

  • Initial adult population distribution by education level - Units: Dnml

Modeling Details

A subscript called education defines seven levels of educational attainment for females and male populations. These are designated E0 through E6, and are defined according to the Barro-Lee database methodology [9]. Thus E0 represents no education, E6 represents completion of tertiary school.

Footnotes and References

[1] There is also an aging chain in the population sector

[2] UNESCO (1984). The dropout problem in primary education. UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand.

[3] World Bank (2012). Governance and management in the education sector (Cameroon). World Bank. Report No. 67201-CM.

Al-Samarrai, S. (2013). Local Governance and Education Performance: a Survey of the Quality of Local Education Governance in 50 Indonesian Districts. World Bank, Department of Human Development: Washington DC, Jakarta Indonesia.

Swaroop, V. & Rajkumar, A.S. (2002). Public Spending and Outcomes: Does Governance Matter? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2840.

[4] Pritchett, L. & Filmer, D. (1998, September). The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Demographic and Health Survey Evidence. Policy Research Working Paper. The World Bank Development Research Group, Poverty and Human Resources: Washington DC.

[5] Leipziger, D., Fay, M., Wodon, Q. & Yepes, T. (2003, November). Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: The Role of Infrastructure. The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3163.

[6] Gordon, E. (1997). Facilitating education in rural areas of South Africa: The role of electricity and other sources of energy. University of Cape Town

[7] Behrman, J. R. (1996, February). The impact of health and nutrition on education. The World Bank Research Observer, 11, 1: pp. 23-37.

[8] Berlinski, S., Galiani, S. & Gertler, P. (2009). The effect of pre-primary education on primary school performance. Journal of Public Economics, 93(1-2): 219-234.

[9] Barro, R.J. & Lee, J.W. (2013). A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950–2010. Journal of Development Economics 104, 184–198.